see. Means of rehabilitation
see. Rehabilitation in children ( Pediatrics )
see. The Goods for rehabilitation
see. Orders of Ministry of health of the Russian Federation on the rehabilitation of
see. Articles about rehabilitation
Recovery - is a special state of the organism, coming after the end of any morbid process and continuing until full restoration of normal nutrition and activity of all organs. In the lungs diseases of this condition occurs quite quietly, almost coinciding with the end of the disease. But the longer the disease lasts and the more important for the organism caused by its violations in the activities of the various organs, the more important gets the recovery period.
For instance, consequences from profuse losses of blood in the peripheral areas of the body (limbs), are removed relatively easily and soon, a small hemorrhage in the brain centers leads to a recovery period, often lasting several months. Recovery after a relatively dangerous disease, such as lobar pneumonia, sometimes occurs in a few days, while comparatively easy and safe the catarrh of the stomach, it may take many weeks to restore normal digestion and nutrition.
With the end of the typical form of typhoid fever occurs, in fact, a healthy, but only because the illness lasted 3 to 4 weeks impaired nutrition, need another 2 — 3 weeks to restore the previous healthy state of the body. In many cases, after an illness connected with the decline of appetite or inability of the normal introduction and assimilation of nutrients began, the state of recovery is almost identical with a state of chronic starvation (see chronic hunger).After surgical disease or major surgery, the recovery period is often very long — over due those local processes that underlie the disease process or the operations manual. Here at complete overall health, it is often only the fusion of two pieces of bone, the restoration of blood circulation or mobility, etc., which takes weeks and months.
It is evidently that the state of recovery on the merits is extremely varied and in all cases requires special instructions and measures. Therefore, those private functions and instructions that are necessary for recovering with regard to their food, environment, clothing, activities and other, in various diseases, just better deals with the private description of these diseases. Here you are to stay only on the public-health importance represents a contingent of recovering people in this population or in this social group.
From this point of view should bear in mind the following General principles:
1) Recovering, by the state of his health, cannot go back to his ordinary way of life, but do not require those forms of care that were applied to him during illness. In hospitals they have to give up their seats and organized for them the care of newly arriving patients, and be placed in a more simple and open environment specified by the physician. Compliance with this point of view should give the same power and means to take up the best way a larger number of patients and convalescents to put in conditions conducive to the most rapid recuperate.
2) Recovering from many contagious diseases for quite a long time retain the ability to transmit the infection to healthy people, as, e.g., recovering from smallpox, measles, scarlet fever and so on, and because, as patients, must be some time isolated from healthy and other convalescents.
3) People belonging to the poor classes of the population, require charity care, as because the disease often lose their ordinary earnings, and because, returning in his difficult situation, can easily be or relapse, or new infection. The care of convalescents is carried out in different ways. In families, in the home treatment, doctor, patient polzovali, continues to monitor the progress of recovery.
Hospitals often delay recovery on a General medical position until full recovery of strength and health, sometimes translating them in special chambers with special staff and special organization. In some countries, are common very special institutions designated specifically for placement recovering. Recuperate at home, in your family that best meets the desires of patients and their loved ones, and is preferable from the public point of view, unless the home decor of any satisfactory, the disease is not contagious and medical supervision is provided.
Organization of public medical care at home after doctors Zemstvo, the Duma, etc. provides greater opportunity for relatively early discharge of patients from hospitals in the care of families, under medical control. The same retention of patients in General hospital wards prior to full restoration of health is one of the wrong and disadvantageous measures. Hospitals are constantly crowded, why suffer the sick and convalescent; treating and caring staff is often in excess, with low productivity.
But premature extract is a great evil. It is best to have special hospitals for convalescents premises or at the respective departments of the hospital, or in special buildings distributed by nature of disease. These institutions remain, however, in connection with a hospital facility, under General medical and commercial office. Hospital new device, such as the barracks hospital in St. Petersburg where we have a special Department for convalescents. Special institutions for convalescents outside relationships with hospitals, have their origin from France, where the first such institution, arranged on the principles of charity, dates back to 1640 for women and girls, released from hospital Hotel-Dieu.
In 1855 arise in the Paris public shelters for convalescents, namely asyle de Vincenne for men (525 beds) and asyle de Vesiret for women (350 beds). Currently these shelters are especially common in England, where there are, together with private, to 157. In Russia long since there were some tricks worries about recovering, as, for example, so-called "weak teams" in the army, in essence, a shelter for convalescents. Shelters and institutions for convalescents often coincide with institutions for the use of chronic patients.
These are the various so-called health resorts, climate station, summer children colonies and so on. They have in common is that medical care is a matter of secondary importance, and the main essence lies in the hygiene situation, the correct mode of life determined by the physician.
Charitable assistance coming out of hospitals recovering is of great importance and highly useful institution is achieved when hospitals charitable societies. Such societies exist for us in so many hospitals and benefit. Generally speaking, proper care of convalescents is one of the important tasks of modern public hygiene, sensible formulation which improves hospital care and saves public funds.
In writing this article uses material from
Encyclopedic dictionary of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron (1890-1907).
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