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treatment manual techniques produced in the patient's body with your hands or the shells. If modern savages allowed to be viewed as representatives of prehistory, we have to admit that at the dawn of its development the mankind discovered the beneficial properties of massage.

As you fatigue, the savage seeks solace in the massage; guest, dear to the weary, the rubbing of the body; in various disease healers used kneading, along with spells. In the literature of Chinese massage is described for 2698 B. C.; some aspects depicted in the figures. In India massage has also been used in ancient times, as evidenced by the works of Charaki and Sushruta; and now with the injury or the bite of the Hindus rubbed various ointments, which sometimes produce a positive wonderful effect; the basis of such ointments, however, is the rubbing, not the one or other composite part.

Among the Greeks and Romans massage was done after bathing, to maintain health and treat diseases. Best doctors of ancient Greece and Rome Massage was administered to the sick (Hippocrates, Cells, Oribis, Aurelian, etc.). In the Middle ages massage along with other useful measures was forgotten; the same should be said about the period of time up to the sixties of this century. Thanks to the efforts Metzger, Eztrader, Bergman, etc. not only raised massage therapy, but the latter was also developed and from the scientific side, the indications for its intended purpose is clearly defined and its use began to produce the special instructions specialists.

Massage irritate the tissues, promotes circulation and improves the nutrition of the known parts of the body.

In the skin is noticed improved nutrition, skin muscles are strengthened, causing flaccid the skin becomes more elastic, the skin glands leads to increased activity; the temperature of only the massaged area of the skin increases.

To muscles massage increases the electrical contractility, because a tired muscle is more able to work (zabludovsky). So, lymph is accelerated, resulting in painful beginning is carried away from the affected area rather (Lastarg, Masengale). The circulation is accelerated; the pulse becomes more frequent, the pressure increases; the outflow of venous blood is easier and the result is the disappearance of edema, absorption of effusions and termination of inflammation.

Irritability of nerves is enhanced - and that reported to nerve centers. That is the reason why almost all of the administration body are amplified: urine is separated in larger quantities (Rubens-Hirshberg), loss of skin and light increase (Stabrovskiy), the duration of digestion decreases (Shpola), and increases in General metabolism in the body (kiyanovskiy). Neuralgia, paralysis, muscular rheumatism, neurasthenia, hysteria, chronic catarrh of the stomach, some forms of prolonged lung disease, anemia, hemorrhoids, constipation - are especially grateful to the stage for the effects of Massage.

Thanks Brandt, massage were successfully applied to women's diseases: in congestive inflammation of the uterus, thickening of the uterus and its appendages, diseases of the surrounding tissues, inclinations and bends of the uterus. Some painful phenomena accompanying surgical disorders treated in General tight; these are: swelling, small joint mobility, pain, adhesions. Here massage gives brilliant effects.

Observations found that in fractures tumors of the soft covers from the massage subsided, callus is formed and gets stronger in 1/3 of the time rather than in the treatment with one bandage (Volpe, Masengale). When you sprain the restoration of normal relations is faster at dislocations after reduction healing obtained earlier; in inflammations of the joints, especially the prolonged, Massage produces "almost magical effect" (EN).

Massage can affect deep-lying organs and cause them to improve; it is used with success, e.g. in protracted inflammation of the prostate gland, rectal prolapse, in strangulated hernia, etc.

However, you should use massage gently, otherwise it can cause harmful effects. When contagious diseases massage can spread infectious beginning all over the body and the local disease may make General; in senile vascular changes, you should be wary of the rupture of blood vessels; in diabetes disease tissue easily vulnerable and capable under the influence of massage to become inflamed and go into a torpor; massage dangerous during pregnancy, menstruation and serious General diseases.

Massage is performed on bare skin, before massaging the patient may receive General or local bath. First RUB the part of the body was covered with an oily substance, now often prefer to massage dry skin. The massage lasts from 5 to 10 minutes, and pressing his hand or is made weak (when fresh disease), or severe (with chronic). If the inflamed part is not available and very painful to the touch, massaged neighboring healthy part.

Women and children allowed only a weak massage, also the elderly; the young and middle age Massage is performed stronger. The massage is done commonly by hand, rarely shells; the latter include: brush, bath scrapers, woolen gloves; further, coil, rastitel back, the mallet, fist, hammer, etc.

Main massage techniques are: stroking (effleurage) is the smooth Palmar surface of the hands massage toward the heart; it may be superficial and deep.

When kneading (petrissage) is the arm of the patient is grasped by the fingers of the masseur's hands and slowly moved these fingers; the force of movement increases not at once, but gradually. With the General massage of the abdomen kneading is entire Palmar surface of the hands that produces circular motion. Constipation the kneading of the colon and rectum.

When the tapping (tapotement) produce a number of tremors of the fingers or hand brush. Massage with rubbing (friction massage) is a modification of the previous one: here the tapping is connected with rubbing.

To soothe pain is assigned shake (commotion); here the starting point of movement is the elbow joint, which bend and unbend, but the undulation is transmitted to the ends of the fingers.

Made more tender shaking movement (vibrations); they are invoked in the articulation of the brush with the forearm and moves rapidly, the movement of the muscles massaging the hands is very weak.

The concussion of the nerve is performed or friction it produced along the nerve in the direction perpendicular to its axis, or shaking movements, do also along the length of the nerve. The jitter produced either in the centripetal direction or only in the area of the sick points.

A modification of this technique is the pressure on the nerve, which lasts for a few seconds.

Massage sometimes may not yield the desired benefit, by an unfortunate choice of receiving massaging.

In writing this article uses material from
Encyclopedic dictionary of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron (1890-1907).

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