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The articles section Weather
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23 March: world meteorological day
The content of the article:
— the main features of the doctrine of the weather and weather conditions;
— SYNOPTIC meteorology — as the doctrine of non-periodic weather changes;
— low and high pressure, the influence of the weather;
— secondary forms of distribution of atmospheric pressure and weather;
— basic rules for weather prediction;
— predicting the weather without SYNOPTIC maps.
Weather taken in everyday life can be called a continuous change of air shell of the earth — atmosphere. In ancient times people tried to find such signs that could be seen on the changes, what can the weather be after a certain period of time [As an example of indications of the known signs of the weather, see kN. Of job, XXXVII, 9, the writing of which belongs for 1500-2000 years BC].Over time the study of the weather stood out in particular science, at first closely associated with astrology, as in the action of the heavenly bodies on the earth had to find an explanation for the continuous changes in the weather. Only in recent times formed an independent science — meteorology, the study of the weather his task.
Weather phenomena seem at first glance extremely complicated and confusing. However, if you dismember the weather on the main elements determining subject them to study, brief observations it is found that the whole number of changes in the atmosphere, which is the weather, is known for the correctness or the frequency, which is, however, quite often, and some areas might even say, commonly, is violated to a greater or less degree the phenomena of nature as random and this is not correctly detecting the non — periodic changes.
In short, the set of facts obtained by observation, shows that the weather for this part of the earth's surface is composed of the known cycle of the periodic changes in the condition of the atmosphere, which — as in the main background — imposed changes changes in the weather non-recurrent.
Observations show that periodic changes in atmospheric conditions are closely related with diurnal and annual rotation of the earth. The magnitude of the periodic changes in atmospheric conditions is based also on the geographic location area on the globe, its height above sea level and the influence of surrounding localities; but all of these factors already during the relatively short series of observations amenable to rigorous study.When such a study is achieved, it would be easy to predict the weather for any moment in any location if there were not changes non-recurrent, so that commonly complicate the correct change of weather, predicting the weather sometimes, even with the present state of science, it becomes almost impossible.
The study of the weather through meteorological observations in many countries of the globe have shown that the impact of non-recurrent changes in the atmosphere on weather, not on the entire globe equally, which was already noted previously: there are areas where non-periodic weather changes or completely eliminated or their influence on the correct course of weather is so small, that last for such localities, has a remarkable accuracy, consistency and stability; these are, for example the field of trade winds (see Winds) and monsoon (see Monsoon).
In other areas non-recurrent changes are observed only during a certain time of the year; the rest of the time due to their lack of weather is a sustainable; that is, for example, the weather in Eastern Siberia in winter, when there is a very high pressure, accompanied by extraordinarily clear, quiet, frosty weather holding here for months; such is the weather in Turkestan in summer, when it stays very stable region of relatively low pressure.On such localities, where non-periodic changes are absent or minimal, we can say that the weather here is quite consistent with the climate (see Climate), and the mean values and amplitude of the meteorological elements that characterize the climate here can be used for weather characteristics.
The study of the weather for such locations are limited to the study of the signs of the coming of those moments in which the weather breaks, is reversed. For example, in India, the classic land of monsoons (see Monsoons) — all studying and predicting the weather has been on identifying the signs of a forthcoming change summer, wet, rainy weather accompanied by winds on dry, winter, Sunny, or Vice versa.
Absolutely other business — the study of the weather for those countries or areas where non-periodic changes in the atmosphere and more frequent and intense enough to more or less mask the changes are periodic, as, for example, in the mid-latitudes. To study the basic laws upon which you could set here the prediction of the Weather, had to create a special Department in meteorology, which studies solely non-periodic weather changes and is known by the name of SYNOPTIC meteorology.Leaving aside the periodic changes in the weather that dealt with the climatology (see Climate), we will stop slightly more in the non-periodic changes; since they are mainly determined by the weather of middle latitudes.
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In writing this article uses material from
Encyclopedic dictionary of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron (1890-1907).
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