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(Cucumis sativa); bot. — see. Pumpkin. The culture of a cucumber originates from warm districts of Asia — China, India, maybe Turkestan; it was known already to Greeks from whom passed to Romans, and during Charles the Great's era it was widespread already on Central Europe. What way and when cucumbers got to Russia — it isn't known.
Sowing campaign cucumber — a grassy plant from family pumpkin, with a lying stalk (up to 2 meters long), heart-shaped leaves, yellow flowers and juicy oblong fruits.
The main advantage of a cucumber — its pleasant aroma stimulating appetite. In a cucumber there are essential oils and organic acids. The cucumber is rich with enzymes useful to an organism which play an important role in a metabolism.
Nowadays the culture of a cucumber is widespread everywhere and gives a set of versions and grades, in the Russian farms use rather few grades. The best the Murom cucumbers suitable for ridges and hotbeds, very prolific are considered; keep up before others, but soon enough stop the fructification.
All plant is undersized, fruits — mnogosemyanny, up to 2-3 inches long, sometimes spherical, is ordinary short - a cylindrical form. Taste pleasant, color bright green, with a white thin skin on the top, dispersing radiuses on each side.
Get divorced mainly in northern and average provinces, in the south lose the durability and give way hardy by droughts to the Crimean or Little Russian cucumber.
The grade also very prolific, is widespread on the South of Russia, in the Crimea, but well it is possible and near Moscow. Young fruits with big hillocks on edges — dark green, strong, good taste, are suitable for a pickles (under a name of the nonfeminine are brought by masses to the capitals). In maturity reach 5 inches of length and are painted then in dark-brown color, with thin rectilinear cracks.
Close to the Murom there are cucumbers Bohr, a grade though less prolific and early, but larger. Fruits of dark green color, are rough, of 3-4 vershoks. Larger sizes reach vyaznikovsky, not losing the green color, why and intending mainly for a pickles, and Pavlovsk — the largest grade, very hardy in the climatic relation: especially it is possible in an open ground, but keeps up late; in the south especially often gets divorced on baxcham and bachtanam.
From grades with long fructification specify on akselsky, very similar with Murom, up to 3-3 1/2 vershoks long, suitable it is more for averages and northern provinces. For an early vygonka are good — Chinese, green and white, Dutch and semi-Dutch — the same flowers, and Athenian cylindrical. The last represents a transitional form to hothouse or greenhouse grades to which many versions, with extremely thin and long (to 75 cm) fruits belong. All of them late-ripening. To interfere with change in a fruit form, the Athenian grade often breeds shanks which bear fruits of week through 3-4 after landing.
In relation to a cucumber, as well as to any other vegetable, the culture — greenhouse and gryadovy is applied a double sort. The greenhouse or hothouse cucumber is very gentle, juicy, in it there is more than pulp, it is less than seeds; it is suitable more for salads and in general for the fresh use, but it is a little strong in a lezhka; because of excessive aquosity, it isn't made for the future.
At greenhouse culture temperature from 18 to 20° R. Zemlya is necessary to a cucumber undertakes cespitose, at an early vygonka easier, than in the summer. Seeds are sowed ordinary already couched in crude sand, sawdust, etc. When the plant will take roots and will throw out 3-4 leaves the systematic prishchipyvaniye of final kidneys begins to put 4-8 main fruitful branches or a lash which could be evenly distributed on a surface the lands in a hotbed. After a prishchipyvaniye water 2-3 times a week.
During blossoming if there is a warm weather, hotbeds open that movement of the air transferring pollen, to reach pollination; otherwise make it artificially. For this purpose the tsvetnevy dust is transferred on a rylets by a drawing brush or collect man's flowers and, having torn off at them petals, put boots on a rylets where they remain before pollination. The greenhouse culture gives the early cucumbers marketed in the capitals and big cities at the high price; cultivation them in a large number can yield very good revenue, but only in very settlements.
The Gryadny culture much rasprostranenny, parts cucumbers almost any peasant having the kitchen garden. Ordinary sow cucumbers on the site of a kitchen garden which was under cabbage, that is for the second year after fertilizer as the cucumber loves the earth nutritious, but not too fat. Fresh manure or ashes impact to cucumbers bitterish relish and cause spottiness therefore if it is necessary to fertilize the earth, manure put ordinary since fall. The site appointed under cucumbers, plow or dig on a bayonet then do ridges to arshin by width, on low places the quite high.
Sowing time — not earlier than May as cucumbers very much is afraid of frosts. Gryadna crops are made by the dry or couched seed or, at last, seedling; the last way gives the chance to receive quite early cucumbers. In our steppes, on the bakhchakh, ordinary sow dry seeds, to the North, in districts of more damp, it is more convenient to sow the couched seeds. At cultivation by seedling seeds sow in flat dishes or in special pots and, having allowed them to develop to the 3rd leaf, in warm day replace in soil, with distance from each other a vershok on 3-4.
When the 3rd leaf starts being shown on the gryadnykh cucumbers, advise to make a nipping (only not the Murom cucumbers). Two-four lateral escapes giving subsequently the grounds to fruitful branches are a consequence of such operation. Appearing from time to time in the basis of these lashes flowers and завязи need to be plucked.
From time to time it is useful to loosen the soil about roots of a plant and to cover the earth with small manure or a straw sechka. Such tire protects the soil from drying and at the same time serves as a convenient bed for fruits, protecting them from contact with the crude earth on which cucumbers грязнятся, sometimes rot or become covered by spots.
Watering at the beginning of landing quite frequent, after a vykidyvaniye of the 3rd leaf is made no more than 2-3 times a week, and it is obligatory in the evenings. Ordinary seeds take 2-4-year-old or, for the lack of those, fresh, but previously dried in the Russian furnace.
From a dessiatina receive on the average from 1000 to 2000, the greatest 4000 measures that at transfer to weight gives from 1000 to 3000 poods, and number from 30 to 100 thousand pieces. Ordinary cucumbers gather in a semi-ripe state, but for receiving seeds leave them on ridges before full maturing while their lashes won't wither and won't dry up, and the fruits from the green won't become the orange-yellow.
The ripened seed copies display on the sun or in a warm place where they become the soft. Then them cut, squeeze out seeds in ware and wash out the last in several waters. It is best of all to dry at first on the sun, and then on the Russian furnace then, ссыпав in bags, to store in a dry cool place. Ability to germination remains at cucumber seeds till 10 years, but the best the 3-5-year-old are considered.
The Bohr district of the Kaluga province, the Rostov district of the Yaroslavl province, the Klin district of the Moscow province, Axel's village and the city of Krasnoslobodsk of the Penza province and some other districts are considered as the centers of production of cucumber seeds and cucumbers at us the Vladimir province (districts Murom and Vyaznikovsky).
In the room at windows the special grade of cucumbers known under the name "rytovskikh" room (by the name of M. V. Rytova) gets divorced. Since Perm and the Urals across all Siberia, both in the cities, and in villages, from the second half of winter land cucumber seeds (from grades Chinese, Siberian) in the oblong boxes filled with the good earth put on window sills, and direct growing fruitful lashes up on a special lattice (rack). At continuous solar lighting development of a plant goes quickly and as a result at windows good fruits grow ripe. Pollination certainly the artificial.
The room culture can be successful better in climate continental, with a large number of clear sunny days. The same plain way can be applied and to other grades of a cucumber, except the rytovskikh, and besides not in the room, and in a garden if to use for this purpose strongly heated by the sun southern, southeast and southwest walls of buildings. The narrow strip of the earth along such wall needs to be dug over, cleared diligently of weeds, to fertilize and set with seedling or a seed and by means of a cord or a wire to send to a lash of plants up or along a wall.
Thus, also yield fruits of a grade of the cucumbers, peculiar to only the southern climate. That and other culture are possible, however, only in small sizes. It is possible to arrange also racks and on ridges; benefit from them is that cucumbers don't decay even in crude weather.
Except dampness (in hotbeds) and frosts to young cucumbers some insects, as the puzyrenozhka of Heliotlrips sucking leaves harm still, to Tetrawychus telarius L. the tick causing a sukhotka of leaves, a caterpillar of a field slug, scoops scales and other, eating leaves and cotyledons.
On adult plants there is a mealy dew, in the form of small black-brown small knots (topping sulfuric color is necessary); also brown dry spots and the small black tochechka sitting in spots depending on fungi of Gloeosporium orbiculare and Phoma decorticans.
Cucumber — a good source of iodine, especially its connections which are easily and without serious consequences acquired by a human body. The lack of iodine, as well as surplus cause it a disease of a thyroid gland, lead to violation of activity of vascular system and other bodies. It is established that those who systematically uses fresh cucumbers, it is less subject to these diseases.
In traditional medicine of the Caucasus overripe cucumbers decoction and lashes drink at jaundice and other diseases of a liver.
Broad application was found by a cucumber and in cosmetology. Cucumber juice wipe the person for removal of eels, freckles, pigmentary spots. From a cucumber it is possible to prepare excellent lotion in house conditions: for this purpose 1 glass the svezhenatertykh of cucumbers fill in with a vodka glass, insist 2 weeks and filter through a gauze. Such lotion — long remains, without losing the properties. For dry skin it needs to be diluted with amount of the distilled or boiled water, adding on 100г one teaspoon of glycerin. For preservation of freshness of the person at fat skin cosmetologists advise 2 times a week to do a mask of a polished cucumber and apple.
Cucumbers are widely applied in cookery. Fresh them use for salads and garnishes. The salty, marinaded and pasteurized cucumbers enter many solyankas, rassolniks, salads, them apply and as a sharp garnish. With cucumbers decorate different salads, snack and dishes.
Pleasant gentle taste and delicate "spring" aroma greenhouse cucumbers — one of early vegetables possess. In food use cucumbers only in an immature look — zelenets as in a stage of a full maturity the pulp of cucumbers becomes rough, grains large, and I began to smell less pleasant. The best qualities cucumbers with very small seeds, covered with a gentle thin skin possess.
Fresh zelenets are unstable in storage. Therefore the most part of a crop goes in the ambassador, pickling and pasteurization. At determination of quality of cucumbers proceed from their form of size, coloring and a condition of seeds. From cucumbers different in a form preference give to cucumbers elongated and ovoid. By the size cucumbers can be divided on small (7 — 9 cm of length), averages (from 9 to 12 cm) and large (from 12 to 14 cm). The best by the sizes for fresh use (in salads, garnishes) consider averages. Small cucumbers are most suitable for conservation.
On coloring cucumbers-zelentsy happen light-and dark green. Various grades have more or less pronounced strips. Character of a surface of cucumbers — from smooth to strongly bugorchaty isn't identical also. The last are most suitable for a pickles.
Some grades of cucumbers and their culinary description are given below:
The Klin cucumber has an elongated and ovoid form, the size of its 11 — 14 cm, weight of 110 — 160 g, a surface large бугорчатая, color light green, pulp gentle, very tasty, without bitterness signs. This grade of cucumbers — one of the earliest. Use it only fresh for salads and garnishes. The most part of commodity mass of greenhouse and hothouse cucumbers falls to the share of the Klin.
The Murom cucumber — an elongated and ovoid form light green with white strips, the average size of its 7 — 10 cm, weight of 45 — 75 g. Young Murom zelenets has the rough rough surface which is smoothing out in process of a maturity. This grade use in fresh and in a salty look.
The Nerosimy cucumber has slightly rough thin skin, but it the longest time keeps green coloring. Cucumbers of this grade can be used for посола only in an early stage of maturing as at conservation of riper fruits in them emptiness are formed.
The Vyaznikovsky cucumber possesses good taste in a fresh and salty look. It is the most widespread grade in a midland of our country. Its form — elongated and ovoid, length is 8 — 12 cm, the weight of 80 — 100 g, a surface melkobugorchaty, a thin skin green with light strips.
Nonfeminine cucumber — the best for a pickles. At salt in cucumbers of this grade it isn't formed emptiness. Besides, salty nonfeminine cucumbers possess excellent taste. Zelenets of a nonfeminine cucumber has a cylindrical form, its average weight 90 — 120 з, length of 9 — 13 cm, a thin skin of dark green color with the light strips reaching a half of a fruit, a surface ridge and large bugorchataya.
Preparation of cucumbers:
1 . Apples we douse page cucumbers cool boiled water and it is densely stacked in 3-liter jars, we add magnolia vine leaves - 10 pieces and we fill in with solution three times: on 1 l of water of 50 g of sugar, also we roll up 50 g of salt.
2 . Cucumbers in pumpkin and apple juice. We douse cucumbers boiled water, we stack in a 3-liter jar, we fill in with boiling solution three times — on 1 l of pumpkin juice of 50 g of salt, 50 g of sugar and 300 g of apple juice. It is possible to fill in with only apple juice.
3 . Cucumbers in grape leaves. We douse cucumbers cool boiled water, and then cold water. Each cucumber is wrapped in a grape leaf and densely stacked in a 3-liter jar. It is triple we fill in with solution: on 1л waters of 300 g of apple juice or grape, 50 g of sugar, 50 g of salt also we roll up. Leaves of grapes keep green color of a cucumber and impact it special relish.
Cucumber snack with cottage cheese.
Cucumber well wash out, wipe dry, cut on circles 1 cm thick (from young cucumbers a thin skin don't cut off). In china pound 200 g of cottage cheese with 3 spoons of sour cream, adding in weight a bunch of small cut onions and a little crushed редисок.
On each circle of a cucumber impose a hill cottage cheese weight, and upward we put ornament from a radish. Circles stack on leaves of green salad and give to a table.
English salad with cucumbers and walnuts (2 portions)
300 g of cucumbers, 8 редисок, 1 green pepper, some feathers of green onions, 50 g of walnuts, 1 tablespoon of greens of parsley, 1 h. spoon of greens of a thyme, 4 tablespoons of soy sauce, 1 tablespoon of olive oil, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 1/2 h. spoons of ground ginger, 1 tablespoon of honey, 4 tablespoons of water.
To cut cucumbers circles, also to cut a radish. To peel green pepper of seeds, to cut rings, green onions — feathers. To mix everything, to add nuts, salt. To shake up soy sauce, oil, lemon juice, ginger, honey, water and the crushed greens. To fill salad with sauce. To mix.
Salad from cucumbers and pears (Germany) (2 portions)
1 cucumbers, 4 juicy pears, 1лимон, 1 tablespoon of raisin, 2 tablespoons of the crushed filbert, sugar.
Pears to clear of grains, to cut in cubes. To add the cucumber which has been cut up by slices, to water with lemon juice. To pour the steamed-out raisin and nuts. To sugar salad and to mix.
The cucumbers baked in dairy sauce:
Fresh cucumbers should be cleared of a thin skin, to cut each cucumber on 4 segments, to cut off seeds; in turn to cut each segment obliquely on 2 — 4 parts.
Slightly to roast the onions cut on segments in a deep stewpan with the bacon cut in the form of large noodles, to attach to them the prepared cucumbers, to add meat broth and to extinguish, having closed ware a cover.
When cucumbers become soft, to add to them a half of norm of dairy sauce, to stir, fill with salt and pepper and to put on a portion frying pan. In the remained dairy sauce to add the egg whites beaten in dense foam and grated cheese. To cover with an equal layer of this sauce cucumbers and to bake in a zharochny case before formation of a ruddy crust. To give cucumbers on the same frying pan on which they were baked.
Cucumbers 200, brisket pork smoked 20, onion 25, broth 50, sauce 125, eggs (proteins) of 1/2 pieces, cheese 10.
The pickles stuffed with fish:
The interesting recipe which not is known for everything.
To clear large cucumbers of a thin skin, to cut out metal dredging the middle with seeds and to fill them with fish forcemeat.
To put the stuffed cucumbers in a deep stewpan in one or two rows, to fill in with fish broth, to add sour cream and припускать, having closed ware a cover, at weak boiling within 25 — 30 minutes. Accurately to shift cucumbers in other ware, and in the broth which has remained in a stewpan to add the dried wheat flour mixed with butter, and, stirring slowly, to heat to boiling. To fill the prepared sauce to taste with salt, pepper and to filter it in ware with cucumbers. With sauce to boil cucumbers.
When giving to put cucumbers on a dish or a plate, to sauce and strew with fennel. Cucumbers can be given also with friable boiled rice or mashed potatoes.
For preparation of forcemeat of fillet is fresher than fish (a cod, a flounder, som,) without skin and bones to pass a carp through a meat grinder together with onions, to salt, add ground pepper, greens of parsley and to mix.
Cucumbers 200, fillet of fish 75, onion 15, butter 10, broth 50, sour cream 30, flour 5, garnish 100, pepper, greens.
Herring in a tomato with cucumbers:
Portion pieces of fillet is fresher than a herring with skin without bones to lay one layer in the oiled stewpan, to add the pickles sliced by thin, a tomato mashed potatoes or fresh tomatoes without skin and seeds, cut by small slices. To fill in all this with fish broth on a half of height of pieces of fish and, having closed ware a cover, припускать at weak boiling within 25 — 30 minutes.
To shift ready fish in other ware or accurately to merge from ware with fish broth and to prepare on it sauce. For this purpose to heat broth to boiling, to put in it small slices flour mix with butter and, stirring slowly, to boil thoroughly before solidification.
To fill this sauce to taste with salt, pepper, butter and to filter it in ware with fish.
The fish who has been filled in with sauce, it is necessary to warm up before boiling.
When giving to put a piece of fish on a dish or a plate together with cucumbers, to sauce and strew with parsley greens. Garnish — potatoes boiled — to put near fish.
Fish 125, cucumbers salty 30, tomato mashed potatoes 15 or tomatoes fresh 75, broth 100, flour wheat 5, butter 10, garnish 150.
Cucumbers, stewed in sour cream:
To slice the fresh cucumbers cleared of a thin skin about 1 cm thick, to salt, strew with pepper, to coat with breadcrumbs in a flour and to fry with creamy or drawn butter. To put the fried cucumbers in a deep stewpan, to fill in with meat broth, to add sour cream, a tomato mashed potatoes and, having closed ware a cover, to extinguish at weak boiling until cucumbers don't become rather soft.
When giving to put cucumbers together with sauce on a plate, to strew with fennel, and round them to lay toasts from white loaf.
Instead of toasts cucumbers can be given with friable yachnevy, wheat or boiled rice (100г).
Cucumbers 200, flour 8, butter 10, sour cream 40, broth 75, tomato mashed potatoes 10, greens 5; for toasts: white bread 40, eggs of 1/5 pieces, milk 50, sugar 5.
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