Children's colony (sanatorium) — Hostile work environment and poor hygienic conditions, a large number of children in the big cities, large shopping centers and factory, is reflected very harmful not only on morality but also on the physical welfare of the younger generations.Urban children growing up in cramped quarters and dirt, eating poorly, not having enough light and air, in the vast majority of cases are helasto, weakness, with anemia, scrofula, and other debilitating their bodies suffer, and have suffered any illness almost deprived of restore to health and strength.
To improve the physical condition of such children in many countries, including in Russia, charitable societies arranged special institutions, children's sanatoriums, commonly outside the cities and in the summer (in the Soviet Union – young pioneer camps). Depending on the location of the device, there sanatoriums, rural, school, holiday (Villa), sea at various resorts.
Their task is to deliver children fresh, clean, country air, healthy nutritious food and if necessary salt baths and other remedies. In school health centers children did not interrupt their teaching, while during vacation the poor students in urban schools. Commonly such sanatorium (camp) are held in separate adaptable rooms, where children live under the supervision of teachers.
In Denmark the summer colony built on other grounds. Annually, up to 7,000 children are placed in small groups (mostly two) to selected farming families and are under the control of a trusted person (priest or teacher). The main advantage of this system, met many opponents, — the cheapness of the content.In Elberfeld, Dusseldorf practiced the least satisfactory system of children's colonies — the so-called city of the colony: daily known number of children going to public places for games, there are small outings, children receive 4 times a day the common table, and the rest of the time spend in the parental home.
Particularly favorable for the improvement of the physical condition of the so-called marine resort and colonies (camps), existing in England, France and Germany in a very significant number. Particularly favorable results are obtained in scrofulous children.
In Russia, such children colonies (camps) are, among other things, in Staraya Russa and Lipetsk on by the society for the preservation of public health; limited resources available for this purpose last, not give them the desired broad-based development.
In writing this article uses material from
Encyclopedic dictionary of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron (1890-1907).
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