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In contents of the article Cosmetics
<< Back The special category of spirit spirits known under the general name of cologne (Eau de Cologne), which had in old times and now still partly kept glory of medical means, thanks to the refreshing and cooling properties inherent in good grades of this sort of spirits from olden days uses the Greatest popularity and universal distribution. These properties depend on care of preparation and a grade of the essential oils and aromatic pitches which are a part of cologne, and also on purity of the alcohol serving for their dissolution. Good grades of cologne prepare on pure grape alcohol (95 — 97 about I Rubbed.).
Are a part of so-called real cologne: benzole pitch and oils — lavandovy, rosemary, not roles (essential oil from fresh wild orange Citrus vulgaris colors or S. Bigaradia), cedar, portugalovy and bergamotny. Essential oils dissolve in alcohol, serially, in that order and in the end add the benzole pitch reduced to thin powder.
Mix is stood in densely corked ware within 4 — 5 weeks at frequent agitation and then overtaken with a small amount of water. Collected average portions of an otgon again are exposed to a vystaivaniye in the dark room, and the more long it, the best quality turns out cologne.
In old times almost exclusively dry spirits, which lost nowadays value and applied now only to production of fragrant pillows (Sachets) and filling of openwork dushnitsa (Cassolettes) were used. The fragrant powders serving for filling of Sachets (silk sacks, pillows, paper envelopes and so forth), prepare from the flowers dried and reduced to powder, leaves, wood fragrant дерев (pink, sandalny, a cedar), кореньев (fialkovy), etc. Recently in trade the dry spirits prepared from the paraffin sated in the kindled look by different essential oils began to appear.
Different smoking means belong to perfumery products, firm and liquid further: candles, powders, varnishes, paper, smoking vinegar and essences. Smoking candles prepare from mix of thin coal powder, saltpeter and fragrant substances, mainly pitches and balms (a rosny incense, storax, myrrh, etc.), based on kamedny solution. Powders represent mix of the rose-petals which are chopped up and eliminated from dust, lavenders, a fialkovy root, pitches, etc., the poddushennykh different essential oils. Smoking paper prepares treatment of thin throughput paper at first saltpeter solution, then, after drying, spirit solutions of pitches and balms. Smoking essences and vinegar represent solutions of fragrant pitches, balms and essential oils in pure strong alcohol with impurity or without impurity of strong acetic acid.
Here the essence known under the name Parfum de rois prepared according to the following recipe belongs, for example: 500 гр. storax, 500 гр. benzole pitch and 160 гр. pitches of an aloe dissolve in the 7th liter. alcohol (or 5th liter. strong wine vinegar), filter and add 1 litas. pink essence, 1 litas. fleurs d'orange essences, on 160 гр. essences of ambergris and musk and 500 гр. vanilla essence. Use of smoking essences and vinegar consists or in their spraying in mix with water in premises, or spraying on the heated plates and burning in special smoking lamps. Similar structure spirit and acetic essences are used as the toiletry preparations added in a small amount to water for washing and bathtubs.
Snuff salts (bottles) represent the mixes flavored by essential oils emitting free ammonia (which water solution makes so-called liquid ammonia): are that, for example, Sel de Preston consisting of mix in equal weight amounts of sal ammoniac or coal-ammoniac salt with extinguished lime and a small amount of lemon, lavandovy and thyme oils, or so назыв. inexhaustible salt (inexhaustible salt) — the large crystals of sulfate potassium moistened with mix from liquid ammonia with several drops of rosemary, lavandovy, bergamotny and fialkovy oils. These salts remain in the small, densely corked pocket bottles.
Hair lipsticks, clamps, grindings, fragrant oils and all cosmetic products of their category represent the scented mixes of fats or fat oils with impurity of the different preserving substances, for protection of fats from damage and from oxidation on air. The best material for preparation of lipstick is considered the crude volovy brain which is often nowadays replaced more by cheap materials: lard in mix with other fats and fat oils, depending on the demanded consistence. Except pork and volovy fat by production of the specified sort of cosmetics are used in a small amount of cocoa butter and a coco, almond oil, kastorovy, spermatst, wax and vaseline.
Preparation of perfumery fats demands special care and purity of manufacture; fat, svezheizvlechenny from an animal, is cleared previously of blood, lived, etc. foreign fabrics, carefully washes and then, after a mechanical razminaniye and destruction of fatty covers, is melted on a water bath. The kindled fat separates from shkvor filtering through linen napkins and in this look arrives on further processing.
The perfuming of fats is made or simple addition to them fragrant substances, or as it was described at production of flower lipsticks, direct saturation by flower aromas by means of maceration and absorption. High grades of lipsticks prepare from the fat vegetable oils sated with aroma — olive, palm, almond (huiles antique), in mix with white wax, cocoa butter, is more rare — with stearin, paraffin or spermatsety.
Soft head lipsticks prepare mainly from lard and brains, and so назыв. clamps or solid lipsticks represent the same pomadny mixes with high content of wax or ceresin cast in forms of sticks or cylinders. For aromatization of hair lipsticks flowers of a rose, a geranium, jasmine, mignonette, hyacinth, tuberose and other from which lipstick and receives the name are used most often. If aromatization is made by ready essential oils, the last increase to the kindled fatty mix at the beginning of its hardening and carefully mix up. For coloring of lipsticks and clamps in brown and black colors the ambergris and the thinnest soot added to pomadny mix also before its hardening pounded on any oil are used.
There are still so-called ice (crystal) lipsticks, prepared from mix the aromatizovannykh of oils and the spermatseta turning into crystal weight at their very slow cooling from the melted state. Except the mentioned fatty and perfumery materials, the different substances preserving fat, such as, salicylic and boric acids, different pitches, etc. are entered into composition of lipsticks.
The special type of the lipsticks used as grindings for the purpose of care of skin for preservation and its savings, so-called cold creams (Cold creams), represents mostly emulsified mixes of fats or oils with water prepared by means of long stirring of the kindled fat with a quantity of water proceeding before full hardening of weight to which, at the end of stirring, corresponding fragrant substances increase. The most known of these preparations Creme celeste turns out as follows: mix in the kindled type of 10 parts of white wax, 20 parts of a spermatset and 70 parts of almond oil and when mix half stiffens, add 20 parts of pink water and diligently stir before full cooling then flow 10 more parts almond and some drops of rose attar (on each kilogram of mix 2 — 3 drops). Further >>
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When writing this text material was used from
Encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus F.A. and Efron I.A. (1890 — 1907).
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