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In contents of the article Cosmetics
<< Back At big perfumery plants of cosmetics maceration is made in the special continuously operating devices on methods of methodical leaching. When processing the most gentle odorous plants (a jasmine, a mignonette, a violet, a tuberose, etc.) the last method — absorption on cold, representing modification previous is applied. The flowers, on this way processed aren't given to direct contact with fat, and are located in densely enclosed space (case), on trellised shelves between which the metal sheets with a thin layer of fat or a cloth impregnated with olive oil are placed.
Thus, absorption of essential oils fat happens through the air of the enclosed space sated by fragrant flower evaporations here. In about 2 days the flowers deprived of aroma are replaced fresh that repeats several times; operation of full saturation of fat fragrant substances demands not less than 25 days.
Now more perfect methods of absorption of essential oils considerably reducing duration of the work (till 4 days) and the giving big product yields are applied. Improvement consists in some circulation reported to air of the device in which absorption is made.
This device consists of two hermetically the closed cases reported with each other in the lower part whereas in the top part both of them pressure-blowing furs from which alternate action between both cases air is overtaken from one to another are hermetically thrust and, circulating thus, accelerates aroma transferring. The interior of cases is filled with closely placed sliding shelves from a thin wire grid on which flowers and pure lard alternately are placed, sometimes in mix with volovy, added for the message to fat of an appropriate consistence; for formation of a bigger surface of contact, fat is pressed through through a special perforated press which it leaves in the form of vermisheleobrazny permeable weight and displayed in this look on grids.
Flower lipsticks are divided, on degree of their saturation by essential oils, into some grades from which the highest go for preparation of spirits, and poorly scented go on sale as different head lipsticks. Extraction of essential oils from flower lipsticks is made pure wine (95 — 97%) by alcohol; alcohol for extraction undertakes approximately in quantity, one-and-a-half or double against lipstick, depending on a grade of the last. For stirring of lipstick with alcohol use special kettles — the extractors which hermetically are closed and supplied with mixers where the alcohol and the lipstick kindled on a water bath which is warmed up too not above 30 — 35 °C heated to 30 ° is poured.
Time, potrebny for receiving a spirit extract of appropriate fortress — 48 — 60 hours after whom contents of an extractor pour out on a dense linen tsedilka, and liquid ottsezhivatsya; the fat which remained on a cloth slightly is wrung out and the received liquid joins the last portion. To separate the parts of fat which passed through a cloth, and also dissolved in a small amount, the spirit extract is located in densely corked large bottles in cellars or glaciers, and after two-day standing is again filtered via paper filters. The lipstick removed from a linen tsedilka comes again to the extraction device and is processed by the same amount of fresh alcohol again.
The extraction duration, office of the 2-nd extract and so forth — the same, as for the first time; the 2-nd extract representing weaker spirit solution is used for preparation of spirits of the lowest quality, lipstick is usually extracted also for the 3-rd time, but the received extract of already independent application has no, and is used for the 1st extraction of fresh lipsticks instead of pure alcohol.
Aroma of lipstick from triple processing by alcohol is almost absolutely exhausted and the remained fat which is quite separated from alcohol goes for preparation of lipsticks for hair and so-called clamps. The essential oils received one way or another serve as the major material for preparation of spirits and other perfumery products.
Spirits represent various fortress spirit solutions of essential oils, etc. fragrant substances and Bouquets made of mixes of the main aromas (see Piyess's scale in St are subdivided in the French perfumery into Extraits aux fleurs, with the prevailing smell of any one fragrant substance, and. Spirits).
The basis of almost all spirits is made by the described spirit extracts of the French flower lipsticks, other materials which are a part of spirits serve only for giving of the bigger sharpness andfirmness, causing duration of preservation of a smell in the scented subjects to them. Pure spirit solutions of different essential oils, thanks to a volatility of the last, represent spirits a little resistant, quickly disappearing why at a fabrication of spirits to them suitable fragrant substances — tinctures and extracts — with a little flying fragrant beginning which, remaining after evaporation of alcohol on the scented subject are added, holds in itself and easily flying essential oil.
Tinctures and extracts have application not only by production of spirits, but also in other branches of perfumery and Cosmetics, such, as: tooth elixirs, powders, ointments and different other cosmetics. Tinctures prepare insisting in strong alcohol of the fragrant pitches and balms, fragrant substances of an animal origin mentioned above, and also from different spicy plants, leaves, roots and seeds, what: musky grains, angelikovy and fialkovy root, leaves patchoulis, vanilla, etc. For an example we give two characteristic perfume recipes of the 1st and 2nd category (Extrait de fleur and Bouquet).
Extrait de Violette de Parme.
|1500 grams||spirit extract No. 1 from fialkovy lipstick|
|5 grams||iris oil|
|5 grams||bergamotny oil|
|3 grams||musky tincture|
|3 grams||ambergris tinctures|
|3 grams||bitterly - almond and oil tincture and light subpaint in greenish color a chlorophyll|
|200 grams||extracts No. 1 from acacia lipstick|
|200 grams||extracts No. 1 from cassia lipstick|
|750 grams||extracts No. 1 from jasmine lipstick|
|150 grams||extracts No. 1 from rose lipstick|
|500 grams||extracts No. 1 from not role lipstick|
|80 grams||bergamotny oil|
|10 grams||Ceylon cinnamon oil|
|10 grams||fialkovy oil|
|150 grams||pink tincture (25 grams in 1 liter)|
|100 grams||iris tincture (20 grams in 1 liter)|
|20 grams||ambergris tinctures|
|20 grams||tinctures of a tsibetin|
|30 grams||musk tinctures|
|30 grams||tinctures of benzole pitch|
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When writing this text material was used from
Encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus F.A. and Efron I.A. (1890 — 1907).
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