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The content of the article «Evaluation of the functional state of the nervous system of athletes»:
Research methods the nervous system
The study of the nervous system, analyzers
Classification of receptors
The study of the autonomic system
Visceral reflexes and symptoms of their disorders
Central nervous system (ЦНС) — is the most complex of all functional systems (Fig. Central and peripheral nervous system).
In the brain, are sensitive centers, analyzing the changes that occur both in external and in internal environment. The brain controls all body functions, including muscle contraction and secretory activity of the endocrine glands.
Central and peripheral nervous system (А, Б, В)
А: 1 — phrenic nerve, 2 — the brachial plexus, 3 — intercostal nerves, 4 — axillary nerve, 5 — musculo-cutaneous nerve; 6 — radial nerve, 7 — median nerve, 8 — ulnar nerve 9 — lumbar plexus, 10 — sacral plexus, 11 — pudendal and the coccygeal plexus, 12 — sciatic nerve, 13 — peroneal nerve, 14 — tibial nerve, 15 — brain, 16 — external cutaneous nerve of the thigh, 17 — lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve, 18 — tibial nerve. Б: the segments of the spinal cord. В: the spinal cord: 1 — white matter 2 — gray matter, 3 — the spinal canal, a 4 — horn front, 5 — rear horn, a 6 — roots front, 7 — rear backs, 8 — spinal node, 9 — spinal nerve.
Central and peripheral nervous system (Г)
Г: 1 — spinal cord 2 — the anterior branch of the spinal nerve, 3 — posterior branch of spinal nerve 4 — anterior root of the spinal nerve, 5 — posterior root of spinal nerve 6 — the back horn, 7 — anterior — horn, 8 — spinal node, 9 — spinal nerve, 10 — motor nerve cell, 11 — spinal node, 12 — end thread 13 — muscle fibers, 14 — the sensitive nerve 15 — the end of sensitive nerve, 16 — the brain.
The main function of the nervous system is rapid and accurate flow of information. The signal from the receptors to the sensory centres, these centres to the motor centres, and from them to effector organs, muscles and glands, must be transmitted quickly and accurately.
In the cortex there are about 50 billion nerve cells (neurons) connected in a complex network. Individual cells using processes are interconnected, each of them is connected with several thousand other cells of the cerebral cortex, forming a complex functional system (the scheme of Functional system by P. K. Anokhin). Nerve cells can be in a state of excitation or inhibition. These two main processes are characterized by strength, mobility and balance.
Scheme. Functional system by P. K. Anokhin
In the basis of functioning of the nervous system are unconditional and conditional reflexes.
Personality (temperament) to a large extent determined by the activity of the endocrine glands (endocrine glands).
About the mental state of the athlete can be judged by the results of a study of the Central nervous system and analyzers.
To examine the athlete in a state of relative peace, while solving various complex problems, as well as physical exercise. This gives the possibility to determine the critical level of function that is to athletes of great importance.
It's no secret that every competition is a "critical situation" that requires the athlete maximum concentrations of physical and mental qualities.
Basic research methods Central nervous system and neuromuscular system — electroencephalography (ЭЭГ), rheoencephalography (РЭГ), electromyography (ЭМГ), determine the static stability, muscle tone, tendon reflexes, etc.
Electroencephalography (ЭЭГ) — is a method of recording electrical activity (action currents) brain tissue c in order to objectively assess the functional state of the brain. It is of great importance for the diagnosis of brain injuries, vascular and inflammatory diseases of the brain, and also for monitoring the functional state of the athlete, to detect early forms of nervousness, for the treatment and when selection into sports clubs (especially in Boxing, karate and other sports-related blows to the head).
In the analysis of data obtained both at rest and during functional loads, various outside influences in the form of light, sound, etc.), takes account of the amplitude of waves, their frequency and rhythm. In healthy humans is dominated by alpha waves (frequency 8 to 12 in 1 s), be registered only when eyes are closed the subject. In the presence of afferent light impulses open eyes, the alpha rhythm disappears completely and then return again, when the eyes are closed. This phenomenon is called the reaction activation of the basic rhythm. In norm it should be recorded.
Beta waves have a frequency 15-32 in 1 s and the slow waves are the theta waves (with a fluctuation range 4-7) and Delta waves (smaller frequency).
In 35-40% of people in the right hemisphere, the amplitude of alpha waves is slightly higher than the left, and noted some difference in the oscillation frequency of 0.5—1 cycle per second.
Head injuries when the alpha rhythm is absent, but there are large fluctuations in frequency and amplitude and slow wave.
In addition, the method of ЭЭГ can diagnose early signs of nervousness (fatigue, perekreditovanija) in athletes.
Rheoencephalography (РЭГ) — method of the study of cerebral blood flow, based on registration of rhythmic changes in electrical resistance of brain tissue due to pulse fluctuations of blood vessels.
Rheoencephalogram consists of repetitive waves and teeth. In its assessment take into account the characteristics of the teeth, the amplitude rheographic (systolic) waves.
On the state of vascular tone can be seen also on the steepness of the rising phase. Pathological indicators are deepening incisory and increase dicrotism teeth shifted downward along the descending part of the curve that characterizes the decrease of the tonus of the vessel wall.
The РЭГ method is used in the diagnosis of chronic violations of cerebral circulation, vascular dystonia, headache, and other changes of cerebral vessels, as well as in the diagnosis of pathological processes arising from injuries, severe concussions and diseases that secondarily affect the blood flow in the cerebral vessels (cervical osteoarthritis, aneurysm, etc.).
Electromyography (ЭМГ) — a method of study of the functioning of skeletal muscles by recording their electrical activity — of the currents, action potentials. For recording ЭМГ using electromyography. The splaying of the muscle biopotentials is carried out using a surface (slips) or needle (stick) electrodes. In the study of the muscles of the extremities most often record the electromyography of the same muscles on both sides. First register ЭМ rest when you most relaxed state of all muscles, and then — in tonic tension.
In ЭМГ can be in the early stages to identify (and prevent the occurrence of injuries of muscles and tendons) of the changes of biopotentials of muscles, to judge the functional capacity of the neuromuscular system, especially the muscles, the busiest in the workout. In ЭМГ, in combination with biochemical studies (determination of histamine, urea in the blood) can be identified early signs of nervousness (fatigue, overtraining). In addition, multiple myography determine the muscles motor cycle (for example, rowers, boxers during testing).
Characterizes the ЭМГ activity of the muscles, peripheral and Central motor neuron.
Given the analysis of ЭМГ amplitude, shape, rhythm, the oscillation frequency of the potentials and other parameters. In addition, in the analysis of ЭМГ to determine the latent period between delivery of the signal to the muscle contraction and the appearance of the first oscillations in ЭМГ and the latent period of the disappearance of oscillations after the command to stop the cuts.
Chronaximetry — is a method of investigation of the excitability of nerves depending on time of the stimulus. First define the rheobase is the electric current that causes the threshold reducing, and then chronaxy. Chromasia is the minimum time of passage of current in two rheobase that gives the minimum cut. Chronaxy is estimated at Sigma (thousandths of a second).
Normal chronaxy of the various muscles is 0,0001—0,001 s. found that proximal muscle chronaxia have smaller than distal. The muscle and its innervating nerve have the same chronaxia (isochronism). Muscles — synergists are also the same chronaxia. In the upper extremities chronaxy of the muscle-flexor twice less chronaxie extensor in the lower extremities noted an inverse relationship.
In athletes decreases dramatically chronaxy of the muscles and can increase the difference of chronaxy (anthroasia) of the flexor and extensor muscles when overtraining (fatigue), myositis, parfenovitch calf muscles, etc.
Stability in a static position can be studied with the help of stabilography, tremorogramm, samples Romberg and others.
Romberg test reveals impaired balance in standing position. Maintaining normal movement coordination occurs through joint activity of several departments of the ЦНС. K these include the cerebellum, vestibular apparatus, conduits glubochaishie sensitivity, the cortex of the frontal and temporal areas. The Central organ of coordination of movements is the cerebellum. The Romberg test is conducted in four modes (Fig. The definition of equilibrium in static postures) with a gradual decrease in the area of support. In all cases, the surveyed raised hands forward, fingers divorced and eyes closed. "Very good", if in each pose of the athlete maintains equilibrium within 15 and not observed shakings of the body, a hand shake or a century (tremor). When tremor is rated "satisfactory". If the balance within 15 is broken, the sample is evaluated as "unsatisfactory". This test is of practical importance in acrobatics, gymnastics, trampoline, figure skating and other sports where coordination is important.
The definition of equilibrium in static postures
Regular workouts improve coordination. In some sports (acrobatics, gymnastics, diving, figure skating, etc.) this method is an informative indicator in assessing the functional state of the ЦНС and the neuromuscular system. With fatigue, head injury and other conditions, these figures change significantly.
The test of Jarocki allows to determine the threshold sensitivity of the vestibular analyzer. The test is performed in the original standing position with eyes closed, while the athlete on the team starts rotational head movements at a fast pace. Fixed the rotation head up to the athlete losing balance. In healthy individuals can maintain balance in average with 28 s, of trained athletes — 90 s and more.
The threshold sensitivity of the vestibular analyzer mainly depends on heredity, but under the influence of his training can be improved.
Paltsevo-nasal sample.. Examinee is invited to touch the index finger to the tip of the nose with open, then with eyes closed. Normal notes the contact, touching or up to the tip of the nose. When brain injury, nervousness (fatigue, overtraining) and other functional States past-pointing occurs (misses), shaking (tremor) of the index finger or brush.
Tapping-the test determines the maximum frequency of movements of the brush.
To perform the test you must have a stopwatch, a pencil and a sheet of paper that the two lines are divided into four equal parts. Within 10 s at maximum speed dots in the first box, then 10-second rest period and repeat the procedure from the second square to the third and fourth. The total test time is 40 s. For the evaluation test counts the number of dots in each square. In trained athletes the maximum frequency of movements of a brush 70 for more than 10 seconds. Reducing the number of points from the square to the square indicates the lack of stability of the motor sphere and nervous system. The decrease of lability of nervous processes step (with increasing frequency movements in the 2nd or 3rd squares), shows the slow process of getting over work. This test is used in acrobatics, fencing, playgrounds and other sports.
Kinesthetic sensitivity is investigated carpal dynamometer. First is the maximum power. Then the athlete, looking at the dynamometer, 3-4 times compresses it with a force equal to 50% of maximum. Then this stress is repeated 3-5 times (pauses between reps — 30 sec) without control vision. Kinesthetic sensitivity is measured by the deviation from the values obtained (in percentage). If the difference between the desired and the actual force does not exceed 20%, kinesthetic sensitivity is assessed as normal.
The study of muscle tone. Muscle tone — is a certain level observed in normal muscle tension, which is supported by a reflex. The afferent part of the reflex arcs form the conductors of the muscular-articular sensitivity, bearing in the spinal cord impulses from proprioceptors in muscles, joints and tendons. The efferent portion is the peripheral motor neuron. In addition, in the regulation of muscle tone involves the cerebellum and extrapyramidal system. Muscle tone is determined by tanuseputro Dubrovsky and V.I. Deryabina, E.I. (1973) at rest (plastic strength) and tension (contractile tone).
Increased muscle tone is called hypertonia muscle tone (hypertonic), no change — atony, decreased — hypotonia.
Increased muscle tone is observed with fatigue (especially chronic), trauma and diseases of the musculoskeletal system (ОДА) and other functional disorders. Decreased tone is observed at long rest, lack of training in athletes, after removal of plaster casts, etc.
The study of reflexes. Reflex — is the basis of the activities of the entire nervous system. Reflexes are divided into unconditional (innate reactions to various exteroceptive and interoceptive stimuli) and conditional (new temporary connection, generated on the basis of unconditioned reflexes result in the individual experience of each person).
Depending on the phase of the stimulation of the reflex (reflex zones) all unconditioned reflexes can be divided into superficial, deep, distant and reflexes of the internal organs. In turn, the superficial reflexes are divided into cutaneous and mucous membranes; deep — tendon, periosteal and joint; distant — light, auditory and olfactory.
The main importance is the study of surface and deep unconditional reflexes. Of these reflexes, the examination of athletes, we consider those that differ constancy.
During examination of abdominal reflexes for complete relaxation of the abdominal wall, the athlete must bend the legs at the knee joints. The doctor blunted needle or quill stroke produces irritation at 3-4 fingers above the navel parallel to the costal arch. In norm there is a reduction of abdominal muscles on that side.
In the study of the plantar reflex, the doctor produces irritation along the inner or outer edge of the sole. Observed normal flexion of the toes.
The deep reflexes (knee, Achilles tendon, biceps, triceps) are among the most permanent. Knee reflex caused by striking a small hammer on the tendon of the quadriceps below the kneecap; ankle reflex — blow of hammer on located on the Achilles tendon; the triceps reflex is caused by a blow to the triceps tendon above olecranon; biceps-reflex — blow on the tendon of the elbow. The impact hammer is applied abruptly, evenly, precisely on that tendon.
When hronicheskom fatigue in athletes, there was a reduction of tendon reflexes, and in the neuroses — enhancing. When degenerative disc disease, sciatica, neuritis and other diseases there is a decrease or disappearance of the reflexes.
Studies of visual acuity and color perception, field of vision.
Visual acuity is examined with the help of tables remote from the subject at a distance of 5 m. If he discerns the table on 10 rows of letters, the visual acuity equal to one, if differ only in large letters, 1-st series, the visual acuity is 0.1, etc.
Visual acuity is of great importance in the selection for sports.
For example, for the divers, weightlifters, boxers, wrestlers in the eyesight -5 and below sports are contraindicated!
Color vision is studied using the set of colored strips of paper. Injuries (lesions) subcortical visual centers and some or all of the cortical areas is disrupted recognition of colors, usually red and green.
For violation of color perception contraindicated bus and Cycling and many other sports.
Field of view is determined by the perimeter. It is a metal arc attached to the rack and rotating around a horizontal axis. The inner surface of the arc is divided into degrees (from zero in the centre to 90°). Marked on the arc the number of degrees indicates the border of the field of view. The boundaries of the normal visual field for white: internal — 60°; minimum 70°; 60°. 90° indicates a deviation from the norm.
Assessment of the visual analyzer is important in team sports, acrobatics, gymnastics, trampolining, fencing, etc.
The study of hearing. Hearing acuity is investigated at a distance of 5 m. the Doctor whispers words and offers them to repeat. In the case of injury or illness, there is a decrease of hearing (cochlear neuritis). Most often seen in boxers and water Polo players, archers, etc.
Research analyzers. Complex functional system that consists of receptor, afferent pathway and the cortex of the brain, where projected this kind of sensitivity, referred to as the analyzer.
Central nervous system (ЦНС) receives information about the outside world and the internal state of the body specialized for the perception of irritation of the organs of reception (scheme Classification of receptors). Many organs of reception are called senses, because them irritations and getting the impulses in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain having sensations, perceptions, representations, i.e. different forms of sensory reflection of the external world.
As a result, revenues in the Central nervous system of information from receptors, there are various acts of conduct and is based on the General mental activity.
Scheme. Classification of receptors (analyzers)
Receptors are perceiving irritation of the nerve endings (tissues, organs) that respond to certain changes in the environment.
The receptor is a peripheral element of the analyzer, and in the Central nervous system is the final link. In the cerebral cortex is projected a certain kind of sensitivity and he is referred to as the analyzer (according to I. P. Pavlov) (Fig. Cortical analyzers of the brain of the person).
Cortical analyzers of the brain of a person
Cortical analyzers of the large human brain and their functional relationship with the various bodies: 1 — peripheral link; 2 — conductor; 3 — the Central or cortical; 4 — interceptions; 5 — motor; 6 — gustatory and olfactory; 7 — skin, 8 — auditory, 9 — visual.
Receptor analyzers are characterized by morphological differentiation, and physiological specialization. Morphological differentiation of receptors occurs in different structures. Many receptors are located in specialized multicellular organs — the organs of reception, adapted to transfer the irritating effects of the receptor cells or nerve endings. Specialization of the receptors is manifested, firstly, in adapting them to the perception of certain types of stimuli — light, mechanical, heat, cold, etc.; secondly, in the degree of their excitability.
The receptors are divided into internal and external. Internal receptors — interceptor — send impulses signalling the state of the internal organs (viscerosensory), as well as the position and movement of the body and its parts in space (vestibulectomy and proprioceptory). External receptors — exteroretseptora — perceive irritations coming from the environment and send to brain impulses, signaling properties of objects and phenomena of the surrounding world, the effects on the body.
It's also possible the division of the organs of reception, respectively, the nature and modality of sensations that occur during stimulation of this group of receptors. Psychophysiological according to this classification, there are: the organs of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, perception of heat, cold and pain and controlling the body's position in space. Some receptors are able to perceive stimuli emanating from objects located at a considerable distance from the body, they are called distant. It's visual, auditory, olfactory receptors. Other receptors — pin — able sensing the irritation only from objects which come into direct contact with the receptor apparatus.
In the process of regular physical exercise function analyzers, consistency, interaction, etc. are improved. In all sports the important role of visual, auditory, vestibular, motor and cutaneous analyzers.
Visual analyzer. To determine the functional status of the visual analyzer examine visual acuity, visual field, color perception, oculomotor, and pupillary reflexes.
In some sports with regular training, especially in those species where visual analyzer has a leading role (sports games, figure skating, Boxing, skiing, acrobatics, trampoline, etc.), field of view expanding, improving oculo-motor apparatus.
Auditory analyzer explore through spoken speech and speech from a whisper, tuning forks, and method of audiometry. The distance of 5 m is a normal border of audibility of speech, spoken in a whisper. Hearing loss in athletes, associated with impaired auditory orientation and as a result of delayed reaction to the beep sound can cause injury, etc. the Most dangerous in the sport, especially in Boxing. In shooters, players in water Polo, etc. are diagnosed neuritis and trauma to the auditory nerve. These violations can adversely affect athletic performance.
Vestibular analyzer. To conduct special studies coordinating samples and sample rotation: rotation in the Barany chair, the Romberg test, palcebo-nasal sample. Sample jarocki is based on the rotation of the head in a circle, normally a balance is maintained with 27,6 с; athletes — 90 с.
The state of the vestibular analyzer as a critical orientation in space and the stability of body balance. This is particularly important in some challenging sports (tumbling, trampoline, diving, figure skating, ski jumping, gymnastics, etc.).
Disorders of vestibular function observed a nystagmus (rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the eyeball), pomahivaya when paltsevo-nasal sample, and the instability in simple and complicated poses Romberg.
During training the function of the vestibular apparatus and its stability improved.
Motor (proprioceptive, or muscle and joint) analyzer signals in the Central nervous system every moment of movement, position and tension of all parts of the body involved in the movement: in the big hemispheres of the brain is the motor area.
With regular practice of vigorous physical exercise the brain cortex because of the plasticity of its activity affects functional changes, directing response systems and coordinating their activities: the team and display exercises are perceived auditory and visual analyzers, this irritation goes on kinesthetically (motor) cells, which causes the required movement.
In assessing the accuracy of reproduction of the set movements in space use Cinematone.
Motion analyzer connected with the activities of its various units. To assess the functional state of the motor analyzer is investigated proprioceptive sensitivity. With the help of cinemadamare is determined by the accuracy of the reproduction of the set movements in space. The study is the fact that an athlete changes to a certain angle position of the limb on which the reinforced Cinematone, and then after 10 repeats this movement — first with the participation of view, then with your eyes closed. The accuracy of the reproduction depends on the workout. The motor analyzer plays an important role in sports such as acrobatics, diving, gymnastics, trampoline, ski jump, etc.
Skin analyzer is investigated by defining pain, temperature and tactile sensitivity on the symmetric areas of the body. Indicators of skin analyzer play an important role in the diagnosis of pathology.
Proprioceptive sensitivity is investigated protractor. Athlete in starting position standing raises his arm to the side and bend it at a 90° angle, and then re-flexes elbow joint to a certain angle by controlling the movement look. Usually choose three positions — acute (less than 90°), straight (90°) and wide angle (greater than 90°). Then this test is repeated 6-8 times, but without visual control. This is considered normal proprioceptive sensitivity when the error does not exceed 10°. If the error exceeds this value, proprioceptive sensitivity is assessed as low. Test used in acrobatics, gymnastics, diving, figure skating, trampoline, etc. where it is necessary to record various positions (postures) of body parts without visual control.
The autonomic nervous system (ВНС) — is the part of the nervous system, which are aimed at regulating vital body functions — circulation, metabolism, thermoregulation is to maintain the homeostasis and maintenance of physical and mental activity of an organism (Fig. The parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system; the Sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system).
The parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system: 1 — superior cervical node, 2 — middle cervical node, 3 — cervico-thoracic unit; 4 — spinal node, 5 — node sympathetic trunk, 6 — postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers, 7 — prevertebral nodes, 8 — interstitial site
The ВНС is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic, Central (suprasegmental) and peripheral (segmental) departments. The cortex has an overall integrating effect on all of the higher vegetative centers.
All the internal organs and organ systems are dual (sympathetic-parasympathetic) of the autonomic innervation to regulate the activities of systems, homeostasis, and General physical and mental activity of the whole organism.
The function of the ВНС — ensuring homeostasis (the constancy of the internal environment of the body), physical and mental activity of an organism (table. The influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems).
The influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on function of organs and tissues
|Body, system, function||Sympathetic innervation||Parasympathetic innervation|
Causes dilation of the palpebral fissure and the pupil
Causes narrowing of the palpebral fissure and the pupil
Increases heart rate (tachycardia), increases arterial pressure, cardiac output
Reduces the heart rate (bradycardia) reduces blood pressure, minute volume
Dilates blood vessels
Dilates blood vessels
Reduces urine output
Increases urine output
Increases blood clotting
Thins the blood
Basal metabolic rate
Increases the level of metabolism (especially catabolism)
Lowers the level of exchange (greater anabolism)
Tone and metabolism in skeletal muscle
Increases the tone and level of exchange
Lowers the tone and level of exchange
Physical and mental activity
Sympathetic (sympathoadrenal) system are responsible for fluctuation of many homeostatic constants, providing physical and mental activity of the body to the maximum amplitudes.
Parasympathetic (vaginalbnaya) system — basis — is responsible for returning all constants to their initial level to ensure homeostasis of rest.
Both systems, as relative antagonists, are in a state of dynamic equilibrium, oscillating circuit which varies, with minimum amplitudoi oscillations at rest and maximum during stress (physical and mental).
The study of ВНС function is performed using special methods (tests), including a study of cutaneous, cardiovascular, and other visceral reflexes in athletes.
Cutaneous reflexes. Skin temperature reflects the status of thermoregulation and heat transfer. When determining a skin temperature of a special thermoelectric device asymmetry is detected in certain areas, segments, biologically active points, common skin hyper- or hypothermia.
Local dermographism is called a blunt end glass rod (or spatula). With dashed skin irritation in healthy people after a few seconds appears a white stripe, which is associated with reduced capillaries (white dermographism). This indicates increased vascular drown (sympathetic tone). If the irritation be applied stronger and slower, then there is a red stripe (red dermatographism), indicating a violation of vascular tone (vegetaria) and dilation of capillaries.
Oculomotor reflex Aschner. The doctor determines the heart rate source in the supine position with their eyes closed, then presses on the eyeballs of the patient and 10-15 s, while the pressure, once again counts the heart rate. Normally should be slow pulse for 4-10 beats/min. Slow pulse of more than 10 beats/min indicates an increase in the excitability of the parasympathetic division of the nervous system, and slow pulse, only by 2-4 beats/min or increased heart rate is a perverted reaction — indicates the predominance of sympathetic tone.
Kinesthetically reflex Danielopolu. Determine the initial heart rate in the standing position, the patient then needs to go through 10-25 s with the pulse count again. Normal marked slowing of the pulse by 4-6 beats/min. Slow pulse is more than 6 beats/min indicates an increase in the excitability of the parasympathetic nervous system, and the lack of response or paradoxical nature (acceleration) talks about the predominance of the sympathetic nervous system.
Orthostatic reflex Prevel. Count the pulse in the initial position lying down (the patient should lie down for 4-6 min), then in standing position. Normal marked increase in pulse rate for 6 to 24 beats/min. Increased heart rate over 24 beats/min suggests the predominance of tonus of the sympathetic nervous system, less than 6 beats/min — the predominance of parasympathetic tone.
Cold test. Hand inspected immerse in cool water (from the tap). At this time, on the other hand measure the pressure, and then at 1, 2, 3, 5 minutes. Normal systolic pressure should increase by 15-25 mm mercury. When sympathicotonia AD increases by more than 25 mm mercury.
Pupillary reflexes are examined by using several tests: the reaction of pupils to light, the reaction of pupils to convergence, accommodation, pain. The pupil of a healthy person has a regular round shape with a diameter of 3-3,5 mm. normal pupils are equal in diameter.
For pathological changes include pupil miosis — pupillary constriction, mydriasis — their extension, anisocoria (inequality of pupils), strain, frustration, reaction of pupils to light, convergence and accommodation.
The study of pupillary reflexes shown when selecting to practice in sports clubs in conducting in-depth medical examination (ULV) athletes, as well as when head trauma in boxers, hockey players, wrestlers, bobbers, acrobats and other sports where you happen to frequent head trauma.
Tremorogramm (ТГ). Tremor — is a hyperkinetic, manifested by involuntary, stereotyped, rhythmic oscillatory movements of the whole body or its component parts. Tremor of the person at different emotional States characterized by changes in many systems: muscular, respiratory, cardiovascular, and also in the cerebral cortex and serves as an objective indicator of the General tone of the Central nervous system.
Tremorogramm effective for evaluating the degree of emotional arousal, fatigue and pain syndrome caused by injuries and diseases of the neuro-musculoskeletal system in athletes.
Recording of tremor by means of sysmodtime on the ЭKГ-machine. On the finger of the subject is put on an induction seismogenic. Mechanical vibrations (tremor) of the hands and fingers, converted into electrical signals, amplified and recorded on tape electrocardiograph. The recording is done for 5-10 s and Then analyzed the form of the resulting curve of amplitude and frequency. When fatigue and excitation amplitude and frequency of tremor increase.
Improvement in fitness is accompanied, typically, by reducing the magnitude of tremor. It should be noted that the TG has a pronounced individual character. Recording of tremor before and after training sessions for micro- and macrocycles provides valuable information about the functional state of the athlete and allows you to adjust the training process.
Ecografia (dynamics of motor activity during sleep). During sleep, the rearrangement and the restoration of disturbed homeostasis.
Intense exercise leads to fatigue of the body, and in some cases and to its accumulation (fatigue) that is causing the excessive voltage energy systems of the body. There is a state of emotional stress by type of neurotic anxiety, resulting in disturbed sleep. This particularly affects the higher mental functions — the ability to concentrate, orientation in the new situation and the ability to adapt it. There is also drowsiness, fatigue.
Recording is carried out on ectogram electrokymography, where the perceiving part is used an inner tube length of 1.5 m, in which pressure is 15-20 mm mercury. Camera is connected a rubber tube with a Marey capsule. Ink piscicida was recording ectogram on paper.
In the analysis of ectogram take into account the duration of sleep, the duration of complete rest, total sleep time, etc. the higher the rate of rest, the better the sleep. Fatigue, overtraining occurs sleep disturbance. Under the influence of restoration actions it will return to normal.
Critical frequency of light flickers (KЧСМ) reflects the functional state of visual analyzer by which one can judge the state of the Central nervous system (CNS). Critical flicker fusion frequency — the minimum frequency of light flashes, which gives the person a feeling of constant illumination is used as an indicator of functional lability of the retina and other CNS regions.
For the evaluation test used a portable device ПИНР-3 construction M.B. Sabotage consisting of the timing unit and the reaction unit customer, which creates a pulsating red led with a fixed frequency, the subject is not known. Daily the value of the critical flicker fusion frequency is defined as the average value of five pairs of frequencies (increase—decrease), which contributes to the most accurate indicator. KЧСМ is investigated under conditions of binocular signal, the critical frequency (in Hertz) is assessed by the verbal reactions of the subject.
Critical frequency of light flickers depends on lability (functional mobility) of nervous processes, which in turn is sensitive to changes in the mental state of the person. The value of the critical flicker fusion frequency improves when one is excited, and decreases fatigue. The scope of its changes depends on the initial level. In the diagnosis of fatigue (fatigue), an initial value of critical frequency of light flickers is essential.
Dynamometry calf muscles is carried out to monitor the functional state of the neuromuscular system, the effectiveness of restoration actions and strengthening exercises. The maximum power of a muscle in isometric conditions is measured by a special dynamometer design V. Dubrovsky, I. I. Deryabina (1973). In the original sitting position the athlete puts his foot on the plastic base of the device and produces the maximum pressure. In healthy men the strength of the calf muscles is 57±3.6 kg in women is 38.3±2.3 kg. lack of exercise, long breaks in training leading to decreased strength of the calf muscles.
The maximum force of the gastrocnemius muscle, and develop when bending the foot, is one of the most informative indicators of the state of the neuromuscular system.
This method allows to control the training process.
The myography (MG). The myogram is recorded on electrokymography. On your hip (or leg) of an athlete overlaps the cuff from the apparatus Riva-Rocci or cuff to measure temporal pressure, coupled with electrokymography, and on paper through the capsule of Marey recorded myogram. For 20 with the athlete at maximum speed reduces and relaxes the muscles. As you fatigue, the frequency of contraction and the amplitude of the curves decreases. Depending on the functional state, the degree of fitness or fatigue amplitude, frequency and height of the curves change dramatically.
Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,
IANPO and the New York Academy of Sciences,
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor,
A.V. Dubrovskaya, pediatrician
It is available for the original version
of the article in Russian
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