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Swimming in flippers, spatulas and gymnastics in the water is a combination of exercise and temperature (or chemical) factor of water for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Being in the water greatly increases the heat transfer and metabolism, activates the hemodynamics, respiration, etc. is Just following in water gymnastic exercises are ineffective, especially for the elderly because of possible hypothermia.
In some cases (for injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, paresis and paralysis) warm water facilitates performance of physical exercises. Swimming and exercise, play in the water has an overall effect on the body, helps to improve mobility in the joints (in cases of injuries, contractures, coxarthrosis, etc.), to improve the fitness of muscles, removal of pain, etc. Gymnastics in water (special exercises with dumbbells, rubber balls, etc.) contributes to the restoration of adaptation to different physical loads, and also acts as the tempering factor at low water temperature (23-27В°C) and causes relaxation of the muscles at its rising (37-39В°C).
Exercise in water is indicated for patients with diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system, especially after the removal of immobilization, disorders of posture, contractures, atrophy of muscles, metabolic disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and also at diseases of internal organs (cholecystitis, colitis, gastritis, etc.), vascular pathology (varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, etc.), the metabolic and endocrine system (gout, obesity, diabetes, etc.), injuries and diseases of the nervous system (osteochondrosis of the spine, paralysis and paresis, neurosis, polio, cerebral palsy, vibration disease, etc.), arthrosis (coxarthrosis), arthritis, vegetative-vascular dystonia, etc. When intra-articular fractures of the elbow joint thermal procedures (paraffin, ozokerite, mud, etc.), and bath (hyperthermia) and gymnastics in the water are contraindicated. It should not be used exercises and walking in water (as well as bath and sauna) when injuries of the knee and ankle joints, as this leads to increased swelling in the joint (increase of synovitis), especially in the ankle joint. Of particular importance are special exercises (with belts, flippers, inflatable cuffs, etc.) for rehabilitation of sportsmen of high qualification after surgeries and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.
In the system rehabilitation includes a combination of cryo and swimming when injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, after removal of plaster casts (langedoc).
Our research (observed 624-qualified sportsmen in age from 13 to 34 years) showed a high efficiency of hydro kinesitherapy in combination with various types of massage (especially cryo) and phonophoresis, and cold electrophoresis and electrostimulation with intramuscular injection of ATP. As a result of sharply reduced time of disability, accelerates regeneration of tissues, improves blood and lymph circulation, tissue metabolism, faster restores motility (amplitude) in the joints.
Contraindications to exercise in water: osteomyelitis, open wounds, abrasions; skin diseases (pyoderma, eczema, athlete's, etc.); diseases of ENT organs (perforation of the eardrum, the middle ear otitis media, frontal sinusitis and maxillary sinusitis, etc.); venereal diseases (AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, etc.); high body temperature and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea, dysentery, etc.); mental diseases (schizophrenia, epilepsy, etc.); myocardial infarction, angina at rest, increased blood pressure, Raynaud's disease, obliterating endarteriit, heart diseases, rheumatism in stage exacerbation, etc.); asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis in the active form, etc.; pyelonephritis, acute cystitis, etc.; severe fatigue and exhaustion in athletes (gymnastics in water cumulates the process of fatigue).
When performing exercises in the water use dive depth, used games and, as a rule, the usual dynamic exercises, exercises with elastic (rubber) band, rubber resistance bands, spatulas (for increasing resistance of the stroke), flippers and a special cuff at the ankle joints, etc. in addition, use the walking and running in water (not touching the bottom of the pool, feet) with special vests. This technique is used in rehabilitation of athletes after surgery on the tissues of the musculoskeletal system, trauma and its chronic diseases in combination with cryomassage (duration 15-20 min, 2-3 times a day, the course of 30-45 days) and then applying the tapes, and exercises in the gym.
Gymnastics in water is a complement to gymnastics in the hall, landings, etc., it is performed using the group method, a run - individual. Are held in the pool playing water basketball.
Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,
IANPO and the New York Academy of Sciences,
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor,
A.V. Dubrovskaya, pediatrician
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