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Description of physical exercises exercise therapy

Feature of exercise: Physical exercise (medical gymnastics) are the primary means of exercise therapy. Therapeutic use of exercise, outdoor and sports games, applied sport and exercise, passive, reflexive and corrective movement, exercise on special equipment and devices (simulators), ideomotor exercises, etc.

The systematic application of physical exercises can influence the reactivity of the organism, to change as General reaction of the patient, and its local manifestation. Thus in General the reaction of the body usually involved and the physiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenetic process. The choice of exercises is based on the mechanism of their action, taking into account the characteristics of the disease, patient's age, etc. (see scheme 1).


Scheme 1. Exercises when training static-dynamic functions in patients

The effectiveness of physical exercise depends on the nature of the movements, number of repetitions and involvement in a dynamic process of a group of muscles (various movements in small, medium and large joints of the limbs, breathing exercises — diaphragmatic, thoracic, etc.).

With the use of therapeutic exercises (LH) physical exercises have a direct impact on both the nervous and humoral mechanisms, aligning functional activities.

One characteristic of LFC is its dosing (see scheme 2).


Scheme 2.

In physical therapy there training General and special.


Types of training

General training contributes to the improvement and strengthening of the body of the patient, when using it use all kinds of General developmental exercise.

Special training is aimed at the reconstruction (development) of disturbed functions as a result of injury or disease, in this case, use the types of exercises that have a direct impact on the injured area (segment) or functional system (exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee, breathing exercises for chronic pneumonia, etc.).

When applying exercise therapy is necessary to observe the following training rules: individualization (taking into account age, sex of patient, nature of disease); systemic, (selection of exercises and sequence of their application); regularity (daily or several times a day the use of exercise over a long period of time); duration (the repetition of exercises during the procedure and during a course of treatment); the gradual increase of physical load in the course of treatment (training must be complicated).

V.I. Dubrovsky,
Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,
IANPO and the New York Academy of Sciences,
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor,
A.V. Dubrovskaya, pediatrician

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